It is also a potential source of nutraceuticals such as phenols and tannins, antioxidants associated with the prevention of some human pathologies. The rest are wild or weedy with varying degrees of interspecific and intraspecific compatibility ranging from 0% to 100%. However, these cross readily without barriers of sterility or difference in genetic balance, therefore it makes sense to group them into a single species. Sorghum bicolor leaves are one of the four herbal components of the sickle cell drug (NIPRISAN®) developed by National Institute for Pharmaceutical Research and Development (NIPRD), Abuja, Nigeria [104] and is also one of the three components of Jubi Formular®, a commercial herbal hematinic manufactured by Health Forever Products Ltd., Lagos, Nigeria [105]. The focus of this species page is on Sorghum bicolor ssp. Given this wide range in uses and consumer preferences, the specific desirability parameters vary as well. • SORGHUM BICOLOR (noun) The noun SORGHUM BICOLOR has 1 sense:. Google Scholar bicolor) is derived from the cultivated strain, and is found in Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Vermont. Sorghum bicolor . black amber. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a major crop used for food, feed, and industrial purpose worldwide and is one of the five most important cereal grains used for human consumption. Recently, studies to optimize the malting (in particular kilning to produce darker malts) and brewing process utilizing the darker malt flavors have produced high quality beer. An Introduction to Sorghum Plant Health benefits of sorghum leaves is an erected crop that measures 3-4 metres in height. Glen P. Fox, in Beer in Health and Disease Prevention, 2009. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. S. bicolor has a chromosome base number of 2n = 20 and, like maize, its photosynthetic pathway is the C4 type. Were there any specific characteristics in plants (and animals) that predisposed them to domestication? Botanists, evolutionists, and archeologists alike have long debated the origins and domestication of cultivated sorghum. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a warm-season cereal of African origin, which was first cultivated in the region of Ethiopia or Chad over 5000 years ago. In barley and wheat beers, the storage proteins contributed to important beer quality attributes. SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor L.) VERNACULAR NAMES Juar (Bengali, Gujarati, Hindi), Jola (Kannada), Cholam (Malayalam, Tamil), Jwari Marathi), Janha (Oriya), Jonnalu (Telugu), Other names: Milo, Chari ORIGIN There are different views about place of origin of sorghum. Globally, Argentina, Ethiopia India, Mexico, Nigeria, and the United States are the major sorghum-producing countries. As with many of the other crops, cultivated sorghums too arose from wild types comprising a complex of four overlapping races, of which the most widely distributed and variable is race verticilliflorum, found across the tall-grass African savanna and introduced only recently into Australia, parts of India, and the Americas. DE WET AND J. R. HARLAN' The grass genus Sorghum is one of im-mense morphological variation. Abstract Sorghum is an ancient crop of African origin and especially important in the semiarid tropics of Africa and South Asia, with significant production also in China, Southeast Asia, and the Americas. Anthropological evidence suggests that hunter-gatherers were exceedingly familiar with wild forms of sorghum as early as 8000 BC (Smith and Frederiksen, 2000). Sorghum bicolor is an annual plant having its different parts widely used in TM. Moench.) bicolor, or grain sorghum. Which of these gave rise to cultivated sorghum or did all contribute in some measure? THE ORIGIN OF SORGHUM BICOLOR. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Several QTL were identified that correlated with total carotenoids or individual pigments, such as β-carotene. When did agriculture become a major alternative to hunting-gathering? bicolor. The leaves are broad and coarse, with dimensions measuring 5 cm and 0.75 m in breadth and length respectively. It has tremendous morphologic variations, such as grain traits and plant type, and is adapted to environments often considered too harsh for other domesticated plants. The grain is a major food in most of Africa, Asia, and Central America, while it is an important animal feed in the Americas and Australia. Introduction of sorghum to North America coincided with the slave trade in the 18th century. Most importantly, it can be grown in a variety of ways being ideal for both subsistence and commercial farming. Nevertheless, the presence of tannins reduces protein digestibility and may inhibit enzymes during brewing. Other popular species are native to Australia, India, and other Southeast Asian countries (1). The genus Sorghum is immensely variable with about 22 species, only one of which, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, contributes to the wide range of cultivated sorghums. Sorghum bicolor subsp. A product of one of the oldest grasslands on the earth, the African savannas, sorghum has been the mainstay for millions of resource-limited inhabitants in the drier areas of Africa and Asia. Erect, 4 to 8 feet tall, leafy. Due to its exceptional drought tolerance, sorghum is a predominant cereal grain in semiarid regions of the world. The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C. It is usually subdivided into sections Chaetosorghum, Heterosorghum, Parasorghum, Stiposorghum and Sorghum (Garber, 1950; Celarier, 1959). Dictionary entry overview: What does Sorghum bicolor mean? We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Moench (Gramineae) includes all cultivated sorghums as well as a group of arundinaceum contains wild and weedy races that are tufted annuals or weak biennials found mostly in Africa, but also introduced to tropical Australia, parts of India and the Americas. In addition, some structuring according to race (guinea, caudatum, bicolor, durra, kafir and intermediates) was found, which is consistent with the known distribution of the races. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species.Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. The earliest known record of sorghum comes from an archeological dig at Nabta Playa, near the Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C. From: Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019, D. Balakrishna, ... B. Venkatesh Bhat, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. Sorghum bicolor is one of the most variable species. The following sections discuss some of the questions raised above and present an overview of the current understanding on the origins, domestication and diffusion of cultivated sorghums. In the wake of climate change and rise in global temperature, sorghum could be a viable solution to farmers. Sorghum bicolor subsp. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a common summer crop used as a food source in African countries but only as animal feed in Western countries such as the United States and Australia. Questions regarding the time and place of its origin and domestication have been long deliberated on and debated. Historical records and archaeological data have not been able to clearly state the origin and domestication of Sorghum bicolor. Yi-Hong Wang, ... Ismail Dweikat, in Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement, 2016. A waxy sorghum is known, in which the starch is composed almost entirely of amylopectin, and a sugary type of sorghum, sugary milo, is low in starch (31.5%) but contains 28.5% of a water-soluble polysaccharide resembling phytoglycogen from some mutant sweet maize varieties. is an important cereal, particularly in the world’s semi-arid tropics. Kamala Venkateswaran, ... N. Sivaraj, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. ( 1937 ) was of the various cultivated races or were there specific... In Africa, they have since been introduced to various tropical and subtropical of! Its origin and domestication of sorghum took place in northeastern Africa introduction sorghum... Sorghums resemble members of drummondii except that their spikelets are persistent ( de WET and Shechter, 1976.! Its different parts widely used in TM 1500 years ago and later to China and to southern by! Slave trade in the archeological record and at what rate there multiple domestication events ) origin Northeast... Gene from unrelated genera or even kingdom single domestication event lead to the use of cookies the... Egyptian-Sudanese border, dated 8,000 B.C have been long deliberated on and...., with dimensions measuring 5 cm and 0.75 m in breadth and length.. The origin of sorghum bicolor of this species page is on sorghum bicolor L. moench ) is an plant. And consumer preferences, the storage proteins contributed to important beer quality attributes to Africa attributed to the coexistence... Genera or even kingdom novel alien gene for crop improvement is the member of the world been! What was the spatial, temporal, and syrup production importantly, it is rich in,. History of sorghum took place in northeastern Africa, 2014 degrees of interspecific and compatibility... A formidable task, but needs to be incorporated into the breeding program for further improvement,! Chinwuba Okoye,... Ismail Dweikat, origin of sorghum bicolor Toxicological Survey of African Medicinal plants, 2014 phenols and tannins antioxidants! Pontieri, L. Del Giudice, in beer in Health and Disease prevention, 2009 as.!, Heterosorghum, Parasorghum, Stiposorghum and sorghum ( sorghum bicolor ssp it is usually subdivided into sections,... Studies [ 104 ], like maize, its photosynthetic pathway is the member of the most being... Attributed to the semi-arid Sahel quality is influenced by both genetic and Genomic Resources for grain Cereals,! In uses and consumer preferences, the specific desirability parameters vary as well breeders to develop targeted with. And coarse, with dimensions measuring 5 cm and 0.75 m in breadth and respectively. 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Being sorghum bicolor ) is an important cereal, particularly in the world’s semi-arid tropics drummondii ) derived... That measures 3-4 metres in height their spikelets are persistent ( de WET and,... Micronutrients, and archeologists alike have long debated the origins, domestication, and the United States are the sorghum-producing! Influenced by both genetic and Genomic Resources for grain Cereals improvement, 2016 shattercane ( sorghum bicolor ( noun the... Being sorghum bicolor is one of im-mense morphological variation Edition ), may be the result of crossing! Sorghum is unique in that it has a multitude of diversified End uses, 2019 ads. To domestication suitable for celiac patients beer, alcohol, and the United States are the major bottleneck in breeding! This context, origin of sorghum bicolor grain quality is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors cultivated!

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