[55][56] The average woodland cover in European countries is over 33%. At the start of the war, the Irish Republican Army (IRA) split into two opposing camps: a pro-treaty IRA and an anti-treaty IRA. [258], Capital punishment is constitutionally banned in Ireland, while discrimination based on age, gender, sexual orientation, marital or familial status, religion, race or membership of the travelling community is illegal. It’s a total of 707 hectares/1750 acres… It covers about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. The activities of multinational companies based in Ireland have made it one of the largest exporters of pharmaceutical agents, medical devices and software-related goods and services in the world. Over 6.4 million people lived on the island in 2016. ", "Social and Economic Value of Sport in Ireland", "Ireland is learning to love cricket and deserves more visits from the elite", "Iceland 'best country for gender equality, "Ireland 'most charitable' country in Europe", "Health (Regulation of Termination of Pregnancy) Act 2018", "NORRIS v. IRELAND – 10581/83 [1988] ECHR 22", "Civil partnership bill backed by Irish politicians", "Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010", "Children and Family Relationships Act 2015", "Ireland becomes first country to approve same-sex marriage by popular vote", "Plain packaging for cigarettes signed into law in Ireland", "Ceisteannea—Questions. This provided for the temporary exclusion of Ulster from the workings of the bill for a trial period of six years, with an as yet undecided new set of measures to be introduced for the area to be temporarily excluded. The Republic of Ireland makes up most of the island 3. [197] In 2012, Irish students aged 15 years had the second highest levels of reading literacy in the EU. [169] Annual population growth rates exceeded 2% during the 2002–2006 intercensal period, which was attributed to high rates of natural increase and immigration. Except in Gaeltacht regions, road signs are usually bilingual. [268] Despite the above measures to discourage tobacco use, smoking rates in Ireland remain above 20% of the adult population and above those in other developed countries.[269]. IRELAND TODAY's ARMY: Ireland’s total full-time defense corps, including all army, navy and air corps personnel, numbers less than 14,000 people. [199] Primary, secondary and higher (university/college) level education are all free in Ireland for all EU citizens. Read about Ireland in Wikipedia. It is based on the unofficial green ensign of Ireland used in the 18th and 19th centuries and the traditional green flag of Ireland dating from the 16th century.[272]. Ireland has 32 counties. 41[103]). Ireland is known for the full Irish breakfast, which involves a fried or grilled meal generally consisting of rashers, egg, sausage, white and black pudding, and fried tomato. 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Ireland is a member of several international organizations, including the United Nations, the European Union and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Abortion had been banned throughout the period of the Irish state, first through provisions of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861 and later by the Protection of Life During Pregnancy Act 2013. [271] It was adopted as the flag of the Irish Free State in 1922 and continues to be used as the sole flag and ensign of the state. Western European Standard Time ( WET ) is the same time as Greenwich Mean Time ( GMT ). [239], Eurostat reported that 82% of Irish households had Internet access in 2013 compared to the EU average of 79% but only 67% had broadband access. However, due to a temperate oceanic climate, temperatures are seldom lower than −5 °C (23 °F) in winter or higher than 26 °C (79 °F) in summer. The Defence Forces are made up of the Army, Naval Service, Air Corps and Reserve Defence Force. 1. [160], Railway services are provided by Iarnród Éireann (Irish Rail), which operates all internal intercity, commuter and freight railway services in the country. The flag of Ireland is a tricolour of green, white and orange. Every resident of Ireland is entitled to receive health care through the public health care system, which is managed by the Health Service Executive and funded by general taxation. However, Ireland always tries to preserve their culture and tradition and on the other hand, Northern Ireland tends to be inclined to the British culture. Oral answers. As a German native living in Ireland for the past two years, this is what I have learned about this little island. Seanad Éireann (Senate) and Dáil Éireann (House of Representatives). [157] Aer Lingus is the flag carrier of Ireland, although Ryanair is the country's largest airline. The cliffs reach 599 metres above the Atlantic Ocean, putting them behind Cape Enniberg in the Faroe Islands. The right to life of the unborn was protected in the constitution by the Eighth Amendment in 1983; this provision was removed following a referendum, and replaced it with a provision allowing legislation to regulate the termination of pregnancy. Administered by the Irish Athletic Boxing Association on an all-Ireland basis, it has gained in popularity as a result of the international success of boxers such as Bernard Dunne, Andy Lee and Katie Taylor. No. Except in exceptional circumstances, court hearings must occur in public. Ireland is the 2nd most expensive country in Western Europe (2 out of 18) Cost of living in Ireland is more expensive than in 95% of countries in the World (5 out of 75) Change the currency: Other currency The Irish Civil War (June 1922 – May 1923) was the consequence of the creation of the Irish Free State. The Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since immediately prior to World War II and the country is consequently not a member of NATO,[17] although it is a member of Partnership for Peace and aspects of PESCO. [154] The Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) has estimated that 6.5% of Ireland's 2011 energy requirements were produced by renewable sources. Alcoholic drinks associated with Ireland include Poitín and the world-famous Guinness, which is a dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James's Gate in Dublin. While Northern Ireland follows the imperial systems of miles, Ireland uses the Metric system of Kilometre. The Government is constitutionally limited to fifteen members. Ireland (Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] ()), also known as the Republic of Ireland is a European country on the island of Ireland.It is a member of the European Union. 164/1970: Road Traffic (Signs) (Amendment) Regulations, 1970", "Irish is third most used language – Census", An introduction to the Ulster-Scots Language, "Pupils exempt from the study of the Irish language (per, "Minister Hanafin announces intention to pilot new additional model of Primary School Patronage", "Education Ireland – Leaving Certificate", "Irish teens perform significantly above average in maths, reading and science – OECD", "CSO – Measuring Ireland's Progress 2013", "World's top 500 Universities per capita". Ireland is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean – by the Celtic Sea in the south; by the St. George’s Channel in the southeast and by the Irish Sea in the east. Because the majority of Irish whiskies are triple distilled and made from a variety of grains, they tend to be lighter in taste when compared to the average Scotch or bourbon. Also known as the Republic of Ireland since 1949. [83], Despite Irish neutrality during World War II, Ireland had more than 50,000 participants in the war through enlistment in the British armed forces. [168] In 2014, 36.3% of births were to unmarried women. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [54] According to Coillte, a state owned forestry business, the country's climate gives Ireland one of the fastest growth rates for forests in Europe. [264] Following a referendum held on 23 May 2015, Ireland became the eighteenth country to provide in law for same-sex marriage, and the first to do so in a popular vote. [210] Other Irish playwrights of the 20th century include Denis Johnston, Thomas Kilroy, Tom Murphy, Hugh Leonard, Frank McGuinness, and John B. Keane. The island of Ireland contains two political units: Republic of Ireland (also called Eire), which is a country covering about 80% of the island of Ireland. However, most Irish playwrights went abroad to establish themselves. Article 44 remains in the Constitution: "The State acknowledges that the homage of public worship is due to Almighty God. Ireland is called the Emerald Isle because of its vividly green grasslands. Where and When is IST Observed? Financial services provided by multinational corporations based at the Irish Financial Services Centre also contribute to Irish exports. [124] In 1999, the entire country was effectively "turned into an IFSC" with the reduction of Irish corporation tax from 32% to 12.5% (the birth of Ireland's "low-tax" model). Add to favorite locations. However, visitors to emergency departments in non-emergency situations who are not referred by their GP may incur a fee of €100. [38] While Articles 2 and 3 of the Constitution defined the national territory to be the whole island, they also confined the state's jurisdiction to the area that had been the Irish Free State. [29] After the Home Rule Bill passed parliament in May 1914, to avoid rebellion with Ulster, the British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith introduced an Amending Bill reluctantly conceded to by the Irish Party leadership. All enlistment is voluntary. Ireland , also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. [44] At the time, joining the UN involved a commitment to using force to deter aggression by one state against another if the UN thought it was necessary. Gothic cathedrals, such as St Patrick's, were also introduced by the Normans. Outside the EU, the United States accounted for 23.2% of exports and 14.1% of imports in 2010. Although originally published in English in 1912,[273] the song was translated into Irish in 1923 and the Irish-language version is more commonly sung today. This rule was changed 10 days after Ireland declared itself a republic, with the London Declaration of 28 April 1949. Ireland has a common law legal system with a written constitution that provides for a parliamentary democracy. In January 1919, after the December 1918 general election, 73 of Ireland's 106 Members of Parliament (MPs) elected were Sinn Féin members who refused to take their seats in the British House of Commons. But while many may think of Ireland as an enchanted land, the republic has been beset with perennial concerns—emigration, cultural and political identity, and relations with Northern Ireland (comprising the 6 of Ireland’s 32 counties within the province of Ulster that remain part of the United Kingdom). [113] However, the stabilisation of the Irish credit bubble required a large transfer of debt from the private sector balance sheet (highest OECD leverage), to the public sector balance sheet (almost unleveraged, pre-crisis), via Irish bank bailouts and public deficit spending. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power. [53] Today, only about 10% of Ireland is woodland,[54] most of which is non-native conifer plantations, and only 2% of which is native woodland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. [107] Following three years of contraction, the economy grew by 0.7% in 2011 and 0.9% in 2012. [110] In addition to unemployment, net emigration from Ireland between 2008 and 2013 totalled 120,100,[111] or some 2.6% of the total population according to the Census of Ireland 2011. lapwing is the National Bird of Ireland. [43], Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, after having been denied membership because of its neutral stance during the Second World War and not supporting the Allied cause. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, and John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. [223] Gaelic settlement had been limited to the Monastic proto-towns, such as Kells, where the current street pattern preserves the original circular settlement outline to some extent. The sovereign state shares its only land border with Northern Ireland which is part of the United Kingdom. This quiz will test what you know about some other features of the land that is Ireland. Dependent on agriculture, Ireland was long among Europe’s poorest regions, a principal cause of mass migration from Ireland, especially during the cycle of famine in the 19th century. For other uses, see, For the history of the entire island, see, "EU: Causes of Growth differentials in Europe", WAWFA think tank, Gallagher, Michael, "The changing constitution", in, Oliver (2004), p. 178; Daly (2007), p. 80. Membership declined throughout the twentieth century, but experienced an increase early in the 21st century, as have other small Christian denominations. This plain is ringed almost completely by coastal highlands, which vary considerably in geologic structure. [244] They are administered by the Gaelic Athletics Association on an all-Ireland basis. That means no grudges with other countries, no wars to send our kids off to and the ability to sleep sound at night. Ireland's patron saints are Saint Patrick, Saint Bridget and Saint Columba. A naval jack, a green flag with a yellow harp, is set out in Defence Forces Regulations and flown from the bows of warships in addition to the national flag in limited circumstances (e.g. Roscommon is the only landlocked county in the province. The state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. Los Angeles − 8 hours − 8 hours: Chicago − 6 hours − 6 hours: New York − 5 hours − 5 hours: Toronto − 5 hours − 5 hours: São Paulo − 3 hours − 3 hours: London: 0: … Modern Irish fiction began with the publishing of the 1726 novel Gulliver's Travels by Jonathan Swift. [237] RTÉ operates two national television channels, RTÉ One and RTÉ Two. [212] Ireland also has three opera organisations. [231] Ireland has long been associated with thatched roof cottages, though these are nowadays considered quaint. There are approximately 3,300 primary schools in Ireland. In 1920 the island was effectively partitioned with the creation of Northern Ireland, a six-county area with devolved powers within the United Kingdom, whereas under the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, the other 26 counties became the Irish Free State, a self-governing dominion within the British Commonwealth and Empire. All these channels are available on Saorview, the national free-to-air digital terrestrial television service. Overview of the people of Ireland, with a focus on the impact of the mass emigration to the United States during the 19th century. It also operates four national DAB radio stations. The education systems are largely under the direction of the Government via the Minister for Education and Skills. Apple, Google, Microsoft, Facebook), which delivered a GDP growth rate of 26.3% (and GNP growth rate of 18.7%) in 2015. In some cases, players sing along to ‘Ireland’s Call’, with ‘Amhrán na bhFiann’ left as an instrumental number. Supported by the Irish Film Board, the Irish film industry grew significantly since the 1990s, with the promotion of indigenous films as well as the attraction of international productions like Braveheart and Saving Private Ryan.[239]. Following Catholic Emancipation, cathedrals and churches influenced by the French Gothic Revival emerged, such as St Colman's and St Finbarre's. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). In the containment phase, the focus is on all cases no matter how mild. [261][262][263] The Children and Family Relationships Act 2015 allowed for adoption rights for couples other than married couples, including civil partners and cohabitants, and provided for donor-assisted human reproduction; however, significant sections of the Act have yet to be commenced. Ireland's special forces include the Army Ranger Wing, which trains and operates with international special operations units. Just as the US Dollar is written as USD, the Ireland Euro’s code is EUR and the Northern Ireland Pound Sterling’s code is GBP. Although multinational corporations dominate Ireland's export sector, exports from other sources also contribute significantly to the national income. The regions do not have any direct administrative role as such, but they serve for planning, coordination and statistical purposes. Education is compulsory between the ages of six and fifteen years, and all children up to the age of eighteen must complete the first three years of secondary, including one sitting of the Junior Certificate examination.[194]. Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." Anti-treaty forces, led by Éamon de Valera, objected to the fact that acceptance of the treaty abolished the Irish Republic of 1919 to which they had sworn loyalty, arguing in the face of public support for the settlement that the "people have no right to do wrong". After a week of heavy fighting, primarily in Dublin, the surviving rebels were forced to surrender their positions. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Irish people have very strong opinions on many things - but they're particularly passionate about their chocolate. Yet, Ireland was the last Western European country to adopt Catholicism. On 7 January 1922, the Second Dáil ratified the Treaty by 64 votes to 57.[33]. The national dog breed for the Republic of Ireland is the Irish Wolfhound though some people contest the idea, proposing the Kerry Blue Terrier as the substitute. The capital and largest city is Dublin, which is located on the eastern side of the island. Languages available for the Junior Certificate and the Leaving Certificate include French, German, Italian and Spanish; Leaving Certificate students can also study Arabic, Japanese and Russian. [78], Ireland's citizenship laws relate to "the island of Ireland", including islands and seas, thereby extending them to Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. [222] The major Hiberno-Norse Longphorts were located on the coast, but with minor inland fluvial settlements, such as the eponymous Longford.

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