What does BENGAL SLOW LORIS mean? Meat-eating by adult female Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). (Fitch-Snyder and Schulze, 2001), Bengal slow lorises are generalized feeders consuming a diet of plant exudates, nectar, fruit, invertebrates, bark, and bird eggs. International Journal of Primatology, 25: 97-164. 2004. at http://www.loris-conservation.org/database/captive_care/manual/. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. The Bengal Slow Loris is also a large commodity in illegal animal trade markets for medicinal purposes, bush meat, and as pets. Slow loris mothers and their infants have a close attachment from the time of birth, sometimes continuing through their lifetimes. having markings, coloration, shapes, or other features that cause an animal to be camouflaged in its natural environment; being difficult to see or otherwise detect. This species secretes a chemically distinct toxin from other slow loris species from its brachial gland, which, when combined with their saliva, forms a … Limited information on its status and ecology is the main hindrance to developing a conservation strategy for this species in India, state experts. They also bite in defense using their procumbent teeth which can deliver this saliva into the predator. The population has been declared locally extinct in parts of South Korea Nam Province and parts of the highlands, and is also expected in the nature reserve of San Thanh and Kon Cha Rong. Group of rescued slow lorises sleeping together in branches. IUCN Red List Status Vulnerable. Their distinctively oversized stereoscopic eyes have an orange-red eye-shine that makes them hard to miss. The species lives in small family groups. The species has the largest geographical range of all the slow loris species and is endemic to northeast India, Bangladesh and Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Vietnam, South China and Thailand). Bengal Slow Loris. Its dorsal fur is light brown, with much lighter ventral fur. 24 Day Old Bengal Slow Loris. ENVIS Bulletin: Wildlife and Protected Areas, 1(1): 92-101. They are tolerant of other loris species as they have been observed foraging on the same tree within meters of pygmy slow lorises which is sympatric with Bengal slow lorises. Anaphylactic shock following bite by a slow loris, Nycticebus coucang. Primates in Northeast India: An overview of their distribution and conservation. Topics Bengal slow loris can survive up to 20 years. They prefer older and younger plantation forests to primary forests and avoid habitats with shallow tree crowns. It has a clear dark stripe that runs up to the top of its head but does not extend to the ear. Scientific Name Nycticebus bengalensis. Brandon-Jones, D., A. Eudey, T. Geissmann, C. Groves, D. Melnick, J. Morales, M. Shekelle, C. Stewart. The Bengal Slow Loris is the largest species of loris, weighing between 1 and 2.1 kg (2.2 to 4.6 lb) and from head to tail, measuring between 26 and 38 cm (10 and 15 inches). an animal which has an organ capable of injecting a poisonous substance into a wound (for example, scorpions, jellyfish, and rattlesnakes). Journal of Zoology, 264(1): 97-103. Although there is minor gene flow between them, gene flow is limited and molecular testing and morphological characteristics suggest there is enough variation to call each slow loris their own species. It is a rhinarium (moist, naked surface around the nose) and a wide, flat face with large eyes. This is applied to the head for defense and is likely foul-tasting. It is found in the Lauachara National Park in Bangladesh, and its 5% range protected species in China was listed on the Wildlife Conservation Act of India 2, and in June 2007, it was transferred to the CITES Appendix A along with other slow lorry species, Which prohibits international commercial trade. Some unspecified species of ticks may also be found in low quantities on some Bengal slow loris individuals. In winter it depends on the tree exudate such as sap and tree gum. Like other slow loris, its tail is also inquisitive and its head is round and short. "Nycticebus bengalensis" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. It has thick, fur, brown-gray wool on the back and white wool beneath it. Natural History . The Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) can be found in southeastern Asia. The Bengal slow loris is a little known, nocturnal, arboreal primate with a wide geographical distribution ranging from Northeast India in the west to parts of Vietnam in the east. Lorises obtain exudates using their procumbent incisors to gouge or scrape holes into the bark of trees. Established in 1993, EPRC is a not for profit project dedicated to the rescue, rehabilitation, breeding, research and conservation of Vietnam’s endangered and critically endangered primate species. They are sometimes used as food and in traditional "medicine," which has no proven value. It is the only nocturnal primate found in northeastern India, which includes Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Manipur and Tripura. Rode, E., K. Nekaris. When under attack by a predator, Bengal slow lorises roll up in a defensive posture with the brachial glands on the inside of their elbows over their heads to combine the brachial gland exude with saliva. Galago Pet – Can I have a Bush Baby as a Pet. The Bengal Slow Loris is 34-38 centimeter in length and weighs 650-2,000 gram. This species is also known by the following name(s): Northern Slow Loris, N. cinereus, N. incanus, N. tenasserimensis. The Bengal slow loris is a gum-eating, nocturnal, tree-dwelling primate species found in northeast India. Mad, bad and dangerous to know: the biochemistry, ecology and evolution of slow loris venom. Bengal slow loris is facing habitat loss due to felling of roosting and feeding trees across its range. The locals captured the endangered mammal in Heyako of Fatikchhari upazila on Saturday and handed it over to … Bengal slow lorises are endemic to the forested areas of south-eastern Asia, including the seven north-eastern states of India (Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Manipur, and Tripura) as well as areas of Cambodia, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, and southern regions of China. It prefers habitats with larger diameters, taller trees with a larger crown depth (defined as the length along the main axis from the tip of the tree to the base of the crown); These regions are generally associated with greater dietary intake and the risk of predation is reduced Because of its predominance for dense forests, it serves as a good indicator of ecosystem health. The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. Human Evolution, 32 (6): 523-559. at www.iucnredlist.org/details/39758/0. There is no sexual dimorphism in Bengal slow lorises. ENVIS Bulletin, 1: 102-108. Young are covered in exudates from their mother's brachial gland in order to protect them from predators. Jhum cultivation, expansion of tea estates and the conversion of forests for agricultural uses are endangering the animal. Giving a child our lifelike version of the unusual Bengal Slow Loris is an important way to teach them about this important cause. An animal that eats mainly plants or parts of plants. Wild populations have declined drastically and are locally extinct in several areas. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. This decline is attributed to increasing habitat destruction due to deforestation, hunting/poaching pressures, and road kills from increased traffic. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a (now extinct) synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities. Contributor Galleries Strietcher, U., M. Singh, R. Timmins, W. Brockelman. (Brandon-Jones, et al., 2004; Pliosungnoen, et al., 2010; Ravosa, 1998), Bengal slow lorises are nocturnal and arboreal strepsirrhines. Swapna, N., S. Radhakrishna, A. Gupta, A. Kumar. Natural History. They have the largest range and are the northernmost species of the genus Nycticebus. It is one of the most common animals sold in the local cattle market. It is chemically different from other slow loris species extracted from its brachial gland (an odorous gland in its arm) and can be used to communicate information about sex, age, health and social status. the business of buying and selling animals for people to keep in their homes as pets. American Journal of Primatology, 72(12): 1108-1117. Others. They carry their young on their backs for as long as three months after birth. The Bengal Slow Loris is also sympathetic to the Sunda slow loris in the southern peninsula of Thailand. Search in feature A study of Tripura’s wildlife sanctuary and Sipahizola wildlife sanctuary in Tripura, 2007, found 2.22 persons / km per month, with nine of the seven landmarks occurring at 1.71 km2 (0.66 square miles) and most animals 8-15 meters (26- 24 feet) in height and close to the interior of the wet, thin forest. Meaning of BENGAL SLOW LORIS. Reyd Smith (author), University of Manitoba, Jane Waterman (editor), University of Manitoba, Tanya Dewey (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor. A Bengal Slow Loris (Nycticebus bengalensis), locally known as Lajjaboti Banor, was rescued from Fatikchhari upazila of Chittagong. Like other slow loris, it also has a wet nose (rhinarium), a round head, flat face, big eyes, small ears, an investigative tail, and thick, fur fur. Primate Conservation, 34: 77-83. According to a survey published on 23 Assam, the population density in Assam, India has been estimated at between 1.5 and 1.5 people per kilometer. Jhum cultivation, expansion of tea estates and the conversion of … The animal inhabits both deciduous and evergreen forest habitats within its range. This strong grip makes up for their lack of a tail. Slow lorises are the most commonly traded of the protected primates in Southeast Asia. The species lives in small families, identifies its territory with urine and sleeps during the day by crouching in dense vegetation or tree holes. comm.). Bengal Slow Loris. Accessed December 21, 2020 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Nycticebus_bengalensis/. Distribution and conservation of Nycticebus bengalensis in northeastern India. Large stereoscopic eyes assist increase their vision at night as they are nocturnal. Spectral Tarsier – Why are Tarsiers Suicidal? The greatest densities of this species are found in eastern Thailand. The Bengal Slow Loris feeds on the exodate of plants such as sap, gardener, raisin and latex, especially from the Fawbasi family. Field sightings of the pygmy loris, Nycticebus pygmaeus, in Laos. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Human Evolution, 4(2-3): 171-179. Terminalia is also commonly consumed. The Bengal slow loris Nycticebus bengalensis is a li le-studied primate native to Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Bhutan, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Bengal Slow Loris is used in traditional medicine in all these countries, is sold in Vietnam for US $ 15 and is also consumed in Vietnam. The Bengal Slow Loris, scientific name, Nycticebus bengalensis or the Northern Slow Loris is the Stripesrahine Primate and the geographical range of the slow loris species in the Indian subcontinent and the Indochina is larger than the other Slow Loris species. In countries such as Bangladesh, only 9% of the main forest was present in 2000. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. Its eyes reflect a bright orange eye glitter. The different Slow Loris species are as follows: greater, pygmy, Philippine, Kayan River, Bengal, Bornean, Mangka, and Javan Slow Loris. Wiens, F., A. Zitzmann. 1994. They inhabit tropical and sub-tropical rainforests as well as semi-evergreen rainforests in southeastern Asia year round. They have thick, wooly fur with a white head, neck, and underside and a brown-grey dorsal side accompanied by a slight darker brown dorsal stripe running down the back. offspring are produced in more than one group (litters, clutches, etc.) Once females conceive, they don't breed for the next two years as they invest highly in the maternal care of their young. scrub forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons. They travel 20 to 30 meters each night, either alone or in pairs. the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic. The species will be found in at least 5 protected areas in northeast India, 4 conservation areas in Laos and 24 protected areas in Vietnam. By early 1997, the Indo-China region had gradually lost 75% of its natural habitat for loris. The mean age for first offspring birth in female slow lorises is 38.8 months, while males successfully produce offspring at a mean age of 50.6 months. Fitch-Snyder, H., H. Schulze. They have very short, almost vestigial tails. Smith, R. 2015. Systematics of tarsiers and lorises. Taxon Information "Nycticebus bengalensis" (On-line). They are heav­ier than all other loris species with a mass be­tween one and two kg and a length of 26 to 38 cm, being more than three times the weight of the small­est loris, … Formerly considered a subspecies of the Sunda slow loris (N. coucang), it was recognized as a distinct species in … The female reproduces every 12-18 months and has a six-month gestation. Throughout its geographical range, slow loris are declining drastically. They have a round head with short ears and rostrum and very large, stereoscopic eyes that have an orange-red eye-shine. It is also hunted for food and the habitat is reduced. The Bengal slow loris is a native of southeastern Asia, residing in the countries of Bangladesh, Cambodia, Vietnam, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Thailand, Myanmar (formerly Burma), northeastern India, … Primate Conservation, 25: 105-110. As we continue to navigate life through the outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19), we wish to keep Sanctuary's supporters and readers connected to recent news and articles. Women usually give birth to a single child, although twins rarely occur. Its arms and hands are almost white. Accessed An Nocturnal Beast, Bengal Slow Loris has excellent night vision, developed by Tapitum lucidum – a layer of eye tissue that reflects visible light through the retina. 2013. 1992. As we continue to navigate life through the outbreak of the Coronavirus (COVID-19), we wish to keep Sanctuary's supporters and readers connected to recent news and articles. On its first leg, the second number is smaller than the rest; The large toe of its foot contrasts with other toes, which increases its gripping power. the region of the earth that surrounds the equator, from 23.5 degrees north to 23.5 degrees south. It is a seasonal breeder, reproduces once every 12-18 months and usually gives birth to a single. A Bengal Slow Loris (Nycticebus bengalensis), locally known as Lajjaboti Banor, was rescued from Fatikchhari upazila of Chittagong. (Groves, 1998). None; Economic Importance for Humans: Positive. Myrobala, a thin tree common in Southeast Asia, is a preferred source for expatriates, but it has also been found to be a plant carrier from several families: Moraceae (Artocarpus), Magnoliasia (Mongolia), Fabaceae (Acacia, Bauhinia), Lecithidaceae (Caria arborea), and Sterculiaceae (Terrospermum). Reproduction, physical growth and behavioral development in slow loris (Nycticebus coucang, Lorisidae). Zimmermann, E. 1989. The Bengal slow loris is the largest of the slow loris species, with considerable variation of size, and coat colour. Habitat destruction remains widespread, and within its boundaries all the slow lorry population has declined significantly. They then use their long, narrow tongues to scoop the exudates into their mouth. 1999. uses smells or other chemicals to communicate. San Diego, USA: Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species (CRES). Required fields are marked *. Infants are able to be parked on the day of birth. This gland secretes substances that, when combined with saliva, may initiate an allergic response in humans, including potentially anaphylactic shock. Infants can be weaned at 6 months, but will continue nursing until they reach sexual maturity. Your email address will not be published. An example of plant species consumed include Bauhinia as well as other liana species. The Bengal Slow Loris sympathizes with the Pygmy slow loris in China, Vietnam, and Laos in the southeast (sharing its range). Your email address will not be published. Referring to an animal that lives in trees; tree-climbing. Duckworth, J. Iteroparous animals must, by definition, survive over multiple seasons (or periodic condition changes). The breed is commonly sold as a pet and in zoos throughout Southeast Asia. Bengal Slow Loris has big eyes, round head and small ears, as shown in this illustration from the mid-19th century. Bengal slow lorises are the largest of the species, weighing up to two kilograms. animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. The Bengal slow loris is a stickler for routine, always using the same routes to reach the same dining trees, a boon to the researcher during her fieldwork. Srivastava, A., S. Mohnot. Bengal Slow Loris . Their close relative, slow lorises, breed throughout the year. Little is known about the status or ecology of slow lorises in Vietnam, but researchers do know that the animals’ numbers are on the decline. Limited information on its status and ecology is the main hindrance to developing a conservation strategy for this species in India, state experts. A female may mate with multiple males throughout her 37 to 54 day estrus. American Journal of Primatology, 45(3): 225-243. Ben­gal slow lorises are the largest of all of the slow lorises, with a skull length of 65.25 mm, larger than any other species of loris. The Bengal slow loris, a species no larger than a bag of sugar, had been living in the capital Male after police officers confiscated it during a drugs raid. The Nycticebus bengalensis or the Bengal slow loris is a slow loris species that is native to Indochina and the Indian subcontinent. Its skull is more than 62 mm (2.5 inches) long. October 28, 2014 Photo Taken At Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Cuc Phuong National Park, Ninh Binh Province, Vietnam. In India, dense forest cover has reduced as much as 55% in some regions and is rapidly disappearing. Primate Eye, 104(19). Folia Primatologica, 63(2): 99-101. The primary users are middle-class women in urban areas. The female will verify the male’s reaction to her calls by intermittently stopping and turning her head. It has thick, fur, brown-gray wool on the back and white wool beneath it. This material is based upon work supported by the Increasing protection measures, enforcing current wildlife protection laws, and linking between protected areas are important to ensure the survival of this species. Scientific Name: Loris tardigradus Commonly found in the tropical scrub and deciduous forests as well as the dense hedgerow plantations bordering farmlands of Southern India and Sri Lanka, the Slender Loris is a small, nocturnal primate. One substance produced by the brachial gland is similar in structure to Fel-d1, also known as cat allergen. Mothers gestate for 176 to 198 days and give birth to precocial young that are covered in fur with their eyes open. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. She will assume a copulatory-invitation posture as she drops below a branch. Bengal slow lorises prefer larger and taller trees with deeper crowns that are associated with higher food abundance as well as a dense micro-habitat that provides protection from predators. In Arunachal Pradesh, its population is declining and threatening. Since they are not seasonal breeders, women can become pregnant when their babies are about months old, and it is possible for wives to have two children each year. On the eastern foot it has a curved “toilet-nail” on the second foot that the animal uses for scratching and grooming, while the other nails are straight. It is also found in the bamboo groove. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. Men and women identify their territory with their urine. having the capacity to move from one place to another. Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) Commensal/Parasitic Species. 0. (Choudhury, 1992; Duckworth, 1994; Fitch-Snyder and Schulze, 2001; Pliosungnoen, et al., 2010; Radhakrishna, et al., 2006; Swapna, et al., 2010), The home ranges of Bengal slow lorises overlap and vary in size. (Pliosungnoen, et al., 2010; Swapna, et al., 2010), Bengal slow lorises use crypsis to prevent predator detection and often take cover in dense vegetation. After copulation, social grooming or social play may follow. The face is creamy white with triangular patches of dark fur around the eyes, which are occasionally connected via a fork to the dark stripe on the head. It also has the largest size. Pliosungnoen, M., G. Gale, T. Savini. October 28, 2014 The Bengal slow loris (Nycticebus bengalensis) can be found in southeastern Asia. The Bengal slow loris was only recently recognised as a distinct species having been previously classed as a sub species of Nycticebus coucang. 24 Day Old Bengal Slow Loris. In Cambodia, it was seen as one of the most common mammals found in shops and stalls on the 21st of 2006, found in hundreds and sold for US $ 0.85 to US $ 6.25. It is a hunting item for spreading and pollinating a seed, as well as eating meat. Much of the literature still describes Nycticebus bengalensis as a subspecies of Nycticebus coucang. 2012. young are relatively well-developed when born. (Fitch-Snyder and Schulze, 2001), Members of the genus Nycticebus practice ‘infant parking,’ where they leave their young hanging from a tree while they go off to feed. The organs of the pelvis vary in color from brown to almost white, and the legs are always pale. Its arms and hands ar… Waterlogging and burned agriculture destroys its habitat and road construction is another factor in its decline. Immediate postpartum estrus has been observed in slow loris mothers that have lost their young. They prefer areas of high canopy cover and forest edges, where insects are more abundant. They spend a large amount of time play-wrestling and socializing with their mothers as well as other adults once a few months old. (Fitch-Snyder and Schulze, 2001; Nekaris, et al., 2013; Zimmermann, 1989), Limiting factors to the lifespan of Bengal slow lorises include predation by carnivores, environmental pressures, such as loss of territory, and anthropogenic causes, such as road kills and hunting. The male will then whistle back to her and approach her. Radhakrishna, S., A. Goswami, A. Sinha. Bengal slow lorises (Nycticebus bengalensis) are anything but ordinary.Known as lajwanti banor, or ‘shy monkey’ in Bangla, they are anatomically and behaviourally peculiar.The English name ‘slow loris’ is a misnomer, conjuring images of a sloth-like existence. International Journal of Primatology, 27: 971-982. The Bengal Slow Loris is the largest species of loris, weighing between 1 and 2.1 kg (2.2 to 4.6 lb) and from head to tail, measuring between 26 and 38 cm (10 and 15 inches). 2010. The Bengal slow loris is also the largest of the slow loris species, weighing between 1 and 2 kg and with a body length (head to tail) of 26 to 38 cm. Van Hooff. In India they are known to occur in seven of the north-eastern states excluding Sikkim. Even if the species does not have clipped nails, it will remove the plant, actively breaking its surface; This behavior is also achieved by excluding bark holes similar to marmoset and prickly lemurs. Precipitation is typically not limiting, but may be somewhat seasonal. A substance that provides both nutrients and energy to a living thing. In the same year, it was sold in the Chinese market (Mingla County in Yunnan Province) and in Thailand for $ 70 US $ 2.50 to US $ 6.30. This could be the source for the anaphylaxis seen in humans. They are heavier than all other loris species with a mass between one and two kg and a length of 26 to 38 cm, being more than three times the weight of the smallest loris… The most serious threats to the species are the wildlife trade (trapping for foreign pets and the use of traditional tropical medicine) and woodland. Although some individuals are solitary, most live in a social setting. Wilde, H. 1972. Males also mate with multiple females. A Husbandry Manual for Asian Lorisines. Studying the ways that various aspects of captivity affects the individual and group wellbeing needs more attention and I hope that my research can contribute to helping captive lorises live long healthy lives. In 1992, the population size was estimated on the basis of available housing between 16,000 and 17,000 persons; However, recent publications say that there are very few people due to the geographic range being reduced. They are heavier than all other loris species with a mass between one and two kg and a length of 26 to 38 cm, being more than three times the weight of the smallest loris, Nycticebus pygmaeus. Males and females are reproductively mature at around 1 to 1.5 years of age, however generally do not successfully conceive as soon as they are sexually mature. Information and translations of BENGAL SLOW LORIS in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. Fathers are absent after copulation and do not contribute to parental care. Females use urine scent-marks to attract mates when in estrus. As the population of the nearby urban population increased, the victim proved to be the deadliest. found in the oriental region of the world. American Journal of Primatology, 43(2): 159-165. 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The area they occupy visual differentiation from other species, with a vas deferens length of 85.5 mm survive least... Can be weaned at 6 months, but will bengal slow loris nursing until reach. Which the animal Diversity Web is an important way to teach them about this important cause G. Gale T.... They invest highly in the Bengal slow loris species that is native to Indochina and the conversion forests... Or social play may follow 2.5 inches ) long moist, naked surface around the nose ) and female. Was present in 2000 Nycticebus coucang my name, email, and as pets lifelike of... Are dominated by trees often forming a closed canopy with little light reaching the ground known as Banor. Greatest densities of this species spend a large commodity in illegal animal trade markets for medicinal purposes, Bush,. Of tea estates and the Indian subcontinent is less than 55 mm ( 2.5 inches ) long to! Local cattle market early 1997, the Indo-China region had gradually lost %. 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Next two years as they are sometimes used as food and in zoos throughout Southeast and... On the nectar of multiple flowers lack of a tail dark dorsal stripe of the dorsal surface flat... Bush meat, and the growing human population will add to the of. Of multiple flowers looking at the gonads the nectar of multiple flowers way to teach them about this important.... Loris will bark the bark of the shrubs Myrobala, an important food source – especially during winter. 6 months, but it does not extend to bengal slow loris ear and conservation of Nycticebus bengalensis as Pet! And thin forests with little light reaching the ground with little light reaching the.! Liana species – Vietnam, both temperate and tropical, are dominated by trees often forming a closed with! Rescued from Fatikchhari upazila of Chittagong forests develop in areas that experience dry seasons more... Hybrids between these two species in the Definitions.net dictionary in southeastern Asia year round growing human population add. Lorises have a close attachment from the time of birth, sometimes continuing through their lifetimes 22.3 % its... Primates in Southeast Asia and ventral sides, as well as eating meat population of the primates. Laws, and the habitat is severely depleted and the Indian subcontinent 1.27 4.26... Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Tripura, Northeast India an average weight of grams. Disclaimer: the biochemistry, ecology and Evolution of slow loris is facing loss...